Nuclear cooperation between India and Russia dates back to the 1960s, when India and the former Soviet Union signed several agreements. In the first ten years, these agreements focused on scientific and technical cooperation, for example. B in the area of facilitating the exchange of researchers. In the nuclear field, the first substantial bilateral nuclear cooperation agreement between India and the Soviet Union was signed after the Indian Pokhran-I. The Soviet Union agreed to provide heavy water to the Rajasthan nuclear power plant (RAPS-II) through a bilateral agreement signed in September 1976.  Previously, Canada had delivered heavy water, but with the creation of the NSG and the peaceful nuclear explosion of India in 1974, Canada withdrew its commitments to India. In November 1988, an agreement was signed with the Soviet Union for the construction of a nuclear power plant consisting of two « light water reactors under pressure of 1000 MWe each ».  During the 1990s, Russia remained a major supplier of nuclear fuel, during a period of limited progress in India`s commitment to the global nuclear architecture. India-Australia civil nuclear cooperation has a history of reserves and assurances. However, fears of a possible stagnation of the agreement may make future cooperation uncertain. The agreement between India and Japan on cooperation on peaceful uses of nuclear energy was signed in November 2016 and came into force in July 2017.
 The agreement is monumental: Japan is the only country in the world to have suffered from nuclear attacks. The agreement included several aspects of cooperation, ranging from the exchange of information and expertise to aiding the design and construction of reactors. A controversial aspect is the « nullification clause, » which automatically suspends cooperation between the parties in the event of nuclear tests conducted by India.  « However, it was decided by the annexation of a separate memorandum to the treaty, which provides that Japan may suspend its cooperation with India if India violates its non-test commitment to the NSG. »  The future of nuclear civil cooperation between India and Australia has many problems and prospects. It is possible that the two nations will cooperate in the energy sector and allow for closer economic relations. But problems remain: the smooth development of uranium trade to India, the non-disclosure of « limited » quantities delivered to India in 2017, other security measures and Australia`s domestic policy also continue to plague the agreement. By 2015, the agreement had not yet been fully implemented.    12 September 2008: The United States remains silent on the controversy in India over President Bush`s allegations that guarantees relating to the supply of nuclear fuel to New Delhi under the agreement are merely political commitments and are not legally binding. These requirements are not absolute and can be excluded by the president, as has already been said. In particular, a president may exempt any of the requirements if he finds that it « would be seriously detrimental to the achievement of the U.S. non-proliferation objectives or otherwise threaten common defence and security. » While no president has used this flexibility in any of the current agreements, in 2006, President George W.